Lima is the capital and the largest city of Peru. Located on the central coast of Peru, Lima is both the capital and largest city in Peru. With a population of almost 10 million, Lima plays host to a third of Peru's inhabitants. The Plaza de Armas is the historic centre of the city surrounded by the Government Palace, town hall, and cathedral. A host of museums, historical sites, restaurants, theatres and shopping centres await the visitor, Lima is the most populous metropolitan area of Peru, and the third largest city in the Americas (as defined by "city proper"), just behind Sao Paulo City and Mexico City.
Lima was founded by Spanish conquistador Francisco Pizarro on January 18, 1535, as Ciudad de los Reyes. It became the capital and most important city in the Spanish Viceroyalty of Peru. Following the Peruvian War of Independence, it became the capital of the Republic of Peru.
Cusco, often spelled Cuzco (Spanish: Cuzco; Quechua: Qusqu or Qosqo), is a city in southeastern Peru, near the Urubamba Valley of the Andes mountain range. It is the capital of the Cusco Region as well as the Cusco Province. In 2013, the city had a population of 435,114. Located on the eastern end of the Knot of Cuzco, its elevation is around 3,400 m (11,200 ft).
The site was the historic capital of the Inca Empire from the 13th into the 16th century until the Spanish conquest. In 1983 Cusco was declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO. It has become a major tourist destination, receiving nearly 2 million visitors a year. The Constitution of Peru designates it as the Historical Capital of Peru.
The capital of the region of Ancash, Huaraz is located at 3085m, 400km northeast of Lima.
Situated on the River Santa in the Huaylas valley, it boasts an inspiring backdrop of snow-peaked mountains of the Cordilleras Negra and Blanca, also home to Huascaran, Peru's highest mountain. There are two main seasons, the wet season and dry with average temperatures ranging between 10°C – 16°C. Huaraz is a newly-built town after the majority was destroyed in the 1970 earthquake in which 70,000 tragically lost their lives. Originally inhabited by pre-Inca and Inca tribes, today much of the population of Huaraz is made up from indigenous Andes groups whose native language is Quechua. Huaraz is a major centre for trekking and climbing.
Arequipa is the capital and largest city of the Arequipa Region and the seat of the Constitutional Court of Peru. It is the second most populous city in Peru with 861,145 inhabitants according to the National Institute of Statistics and Informatics and the third most populous metropolitan area.
The city was founded on August 15, 1540 by Garcí Manuel de Carbajal as 'Villa Hermosa de Nuestra Señora de la Asunción". By Royal Decree of September 22, 1541, King Charles V of Spain granted Arequipa the title of 'City'. During the Colonial period, Arequipa became highly important for its economic prosperity and for its loyalty to the Spanish Crown.
Puno is a city in southeastern Peru, located on the shore of Lake Titicaca. It is the capital city of the Puno Region and the Puno Province with a population of approximately 149,064 (2014 estimate). The city was established in 1668 by viceroy Pedro Antonio Fernández de Castro as capital of the province of Paucarcolla with the name San Juan Bautista de Puno. The name was later changed to San Carlos de Puno, in honor of king Charles II of Spain. Puno has several churches dating back from the colonial period; they were built to service the Spanish population and evangelize the natives.
Trujillo is a city in coastal northwestern Peru and the capital of La Libertad Region. It is the centre of the third most populous city of Peru and most populous city of the North macroregion of the country. It is located on the banks of the Moche River, near its mouth at the Pacific Ocean, in the Moche Valley. This was a site of the great prehistoric Moche and Chimu cultures before the Inca conquest and subsequent expansion.
Trujillo is also known as the "Capital of the everlasting Spring", is considered the "Capital of the Marinera," a traditional dance in Peru, "Cradle of the typical Peruvian Paso Horse," as well as the "Capital of Culture of Peru". It has sponsored numerous national and international cultural events, and has a lively arts community. Current festivals include the "National Marinera Festival", the Trujillo Spring Festival and the International Book Festival, which is one of the most important cultural events in the country.
Trujillo is close to two major archeological sites of pre-Columbian monuments: Chan Chan, the largest adobe city in the ancient world, designated a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1986; and the temples of the Sun and Moon (the largest adobe pyramid in Peru).
Chiclayo is the capital city of the Lambayeque region in northern Peru. It is located 13 kilometers inland from the Pacific coast and 770 kilometers from the nation's capital, Lima. It is also the principal city of the fourth most populous metropolitan area of Peru.
Chachapoyas is a city in northern Peru at an elevation of 2,235 meters (7,657 ft). The city has a population of approximately 20,279 people. Situated in the mountains far from the Peruvian coast, Chachapoyas remains fairly isolated from other regions of Peru. Hikers and adventurers can visit the Chachapoya region There is daily service by bus to Chiclayo and Cajamarca. The bus from Chiclayo is an overnight bus but to Cajamarca due to the difficult and winding roads the bus only goes during the day.
In Chachapoyas there are many tourist places such as Gocta waterfall, Kuelap, Laguna de los Cóndores.